Sunday, February 23, 2020

Proposal (for Dissertation) Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

(for Dissertation) - Research Proposal Example Immigrants in the UK from the OECD countries are the worst affected by the downturn. The internationalization of higher education in the past 30 years has been the driver for the growth of the sector globally (Bodycott, 2009). The number of international students since 1995 has almost doubled to 2.7 million globally. The motivations for internationalization differ across countries and institutions. The drive to internationalize has also led to the development of ‘transnational education’ programs. Internationalization has led to strategic alliances and use of technology to deliver education to students located in various countries. Today universities around the world seek quality international students to enhance their reputation, to enrich their campuses and programs through contributions from different sources. While education is a priority sector, student inflows have been found to be sensitive to economic conditions in their home countries and to the exchange rates ( Papademetriou, Sumption & Somerville, 2009). Economic conditions and currency fluctuations influence the student flow between the host country and the source countries. Downturn has reduced the individual savings in sending countries. This would likely reduce the number of self-financed international students as they would prefer an educational institution closer to home. This is also because the students work during their studies in order to support themselves (Somerville & Sumption, 2009). Rationale for research Following the recession, the GDP of the UK contracted by 1.5 percent in the fourth quarter of 2008 and the decline was unusually rapid over the entire year (Somerville & Sumption, 2009). This downturn has been unusual as all sectors have been hit. The effect of recession is very prominent in the international students’ inflow in the UK. Students account for a quarter of total of migrants into the UK and the UK is the second most important destination country for int ernational students worldwide. The precise number of international students in the UK is not known but as per the figures of 2008-09 approximately 214,000 non EU students studied at the public-funded schools in the UK (UKCISA, 2010). The non EU students are bound to pay the entire costs of the education which typically ranges between ?8,000 and ?15,000. The fees from the international students account for 10-30% of the income of the universities. This translates into ?2.5bn earnings of the UK universities with another ?2.5bn spend by international students on goods and services. This contribution is only from the public –funded colleges and when the earnings of the private colleges are added, the international students contribute about ?8.5bn to the UK economy. About 26 UK institutions derive at least 10% of their income from foreign students’ fees (Somerville & Sumption, 2009). The UK receives the highest number of students from China. During the Asian crisis on 1997 also the flow of Malaysian students to the UK was affected (Somerville & Sumption, 2009). In addition the UK universities face stiff competition from the US and Canada international schools. The global market for international students is increasingly competitive (Bodycott, 2009). This results in the UK universities incurring loss of revenue. Under the circumstances, the UK universiti

Friday, February 7, 2020

Why the Spanish Carribean was unable to maintain control over its own Essay

Why the Spanish Carribean was unable to maintain control over its own Industries - Essay Example Production continued to increase up to 1925 well production deteriorated thereafter because of a series of restrictive policies first on the Cuban government and then on the part of the United States aimed at reducing overproduction and restoring prices. The division of labor and the existence of major production and processing machinery meant that workers were separated from the means of production and subjected to industrial discipline. (Ayala, 50) The plantation systems created a capitalist form which was dominated by the oligopolistic giant in the world sugar market. The Spanish Caribbean was unable to maintain control over its industries because of the introduction of the most modern forms of economic organization which lead to the emergence of wage labor based on the inability of the labor to handle the new technology. This was coupled with the poverty and inequality and the lack of capital for investment. Furthermore, the development of the free labor market and the introducti on of the latest technological advances in the sugar mills, and the fast-paced economic integration to the US economy were the major causes of the persistence in poverty and underdevelopment. (Langley, 271-5) The entrance of the US in the market caused a massive ripple in the industry because of the US had the latest technology and trained workers to handle the production process. The US easily captured and dominated the market because of the inability of the Spanish Caribbean to contain the massive raw material production due to lack of sophisticated industries and technologies that were owned by the US. Furthermore the US had the capital required to invest and run the business effectively which was lacking in the Spanish Caribbean. Innovative technologies and increase in the scale of production radically transformed the business of sugar production. The idea of land concentration also created a scenario in which a few land owners acquired most of the land resulting in the majority of the population being landless and also the immigration of more workers for the sugar industry without any changes in the land tenure further aggravated the landlessness situation in the areas and local class relations were transformed and the workforce proletarian by large-scale investments in sugar centrals. (Langhorn, 10) The large landowners received economic compensation, but workers were simply expelled from the land and their houses were demolished. The eviction of the agricultural workers disregarded traditional usufruct rights over parcels of land, which provided access to means of subsistence above the monetary wages of the workers. The destruction of garden plots and closure of access to fruit trees implied, over the long term, impoverishment for these rural workers. Some of the sugar plantations were converted to military bases by the US due to its ability to acquire the land from the large land owners with only a few transactions. (Langhorn, 10) The sugar companies o ften purchased already existing mills which were small in size and hence unable to handle the large quantity of the raw materials produced; this gave the US an upper hand in the industry since it had large size mills that were able to handle a large quantity of the raw materials and the vertical ownership structure extending across the border to the north subdued local interests or prevented them from surfacing. Further, the increase in employment in other sectors such as construction and other sectors promoted by military contracts during the Second World War to the decline of employment in the sugar industry. In addition the new jobs paid better wages; this therefore transformed the economy from an agrarian economy to one dependent on the US Navy also